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2020 United States Senate elections

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2020 United States Senate elections

← 2018 November 3, 2020
January 5, 2021 (Georgia runoffs)
2022 →

35 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate
51[a] seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Chuck Schumer official photo (cropped).jpg Mitch McConnell 2016 official photo (cropped).jpg
Leader Chuck Schumer Mitch McConnell
Party Democratic Republican
Leader since January 3, 2017 January 3, 2007
Leader's seat New York Kentucky
Seats before 45 53
Seats after 48[b] 50[b]
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 3
Popular vote 41,958,212[c] 44,106,711[c]
Percentage 48.3% 50.8%
Swing Decrease 9.9% Increase 12.1%
Seats up 12 23
Races won 15 20

  Third party
 
Party Independent
Seats before 2[d]
Seats after 2
Seat change Steady
Seats up 0
Races won 0

2020–21 United States Senate special election in Georgia2020 United States Senate election in Alabama2020 United States Senate election in Alaska2020 United States Senate special election in Arizona2020 United States Senate election in Arkansas2020 United States Senate election in Colorado2020 United States Senate election in Delaware2020–21 United States Senate election in Georgia2020 United States Senate election in Idaho2020 United States Senate election in Illinois2020 United States Senate election in Iowa2020 United States Senate election in Kansas2020 United States Senate election in Kentucky2020 United States Senate election in Louisiana2020 United States Senate election in Maine2020 United States Senate election in Massachusetts2020 United States Senate election in Michigan2020 United States Senate election in Minnesota2020 United States Senate election in Mississippi2020 United States Senate election in Montana2020 United States Senate election in Nebraska2020 United States Senate election in New Hampshire2020 United States Senate election in New Jersey2020 United States Senate election in New Mexico2020 United States Senate election in North Carolina2020 United States Senate election in Oklahoma2020 United States Senate election in Oregon2020 United States Senate election in Rhode Island2020 United States Senate election in South Carolina2020 United States Senate election in South Dakota2020 United States Senate election in Tennessee2020 United States Senate election in Texas2020 United States Senate election in Virginia2020 United States Senate election in West Virginia2020 United States Senate election in Wyoming2020 Senate election results map.svg
About this image
Results of the elections:
     Democratic gain      Republican gain
     Democratic hold      Republican hold
     No election
Rectangular inset (Georgia): both seats up for election

Majority Leader before election

Mitch McConnell
Republican

Elected Majority Leader

TBD

The 2020 United States Senate elections were held on November 3, 2020,[1] with the 33 class 2 seats of the Senate contested in regular elections.[2] Of these, 21 were held by Republicans and 12 by Democrats. The winners were elected to six-year terms from January 3, 2021, to January 3, 2027.[3] Two special elections for seats held by Republicans were also held in conjunction with the general elections, with one in Arizona to fill the vacancy created by John McCain's death in 2018 and one in Georgia following Johnny Isakson's resignation in 2019.[4][5] In both races, the appointed Republican lost to a Democrat.[6][7]

In the 2014 United States Senate elections, the last regularly scheduled elections for class 2 Senate seats, the Republicans won nine seats from the Democrats and gained a majority,[8] which they continued to hold after the 2016 and 2018 elections.[9][10] Before the elections, Republicans held 53 seats, Democrats held 45 seats, and independents caucusing with the Democrats held two seats, which were not up for reelection.[11] Including the special elections in Arizona and Georgia, Republicans defended 23 seats and the Democrats 12.[12]

Democrats needed a net gain of four seats or three and the vice presidency to gain a majority,[a][13] which they will have upon Kamala Harris's inauguration as vice president on January 20. Despite record-breaking turnout and fundraising efforts, Democrats underperformed expectations on election night. They only flipped seats in Arizona and Colorado while failing to flip other seats in races that were considered competitive, and they also lost a seat in Alabama.[6][14] Except in Maine, the winning party in every Senate election was the winning party in the state's presidential election.[15]

Due to election laws in Georgia that require candidates to win at least 50% of the vote in the general election, both races advanced to runoff elections on January 5, 2021.[16] Democrats ultimately won both seats,[7] and the partisan balance in the Senate was tied for the first time since 2001.[17] Vice President-elect Harris's tie-breaking vote will give Democrats control of the chamber by the smallest margin possible after the new administration takes office.[18]

Election summary

Parties Total
Democratic Independent Republican
Last election (2018) 45 2 53 100
Before this election 45 2 53 100
Not up 33 2 30 65
Class 1 (20182024) 21 2 10 33
Class 3 (20162022) 12 20 32
Up 12 23 35
Class 2 (2014→2020) 12 21 33
Special: class 3 2 2
General elections
Incumbent retiring 1 3 4
Incumbent running 11 18 29
Special elections
Appointee running 2 2

Change in composition

Republicans defended 23 seats while Democrats defended 12.[12] Each block represents one of the 100 Senate seats. "D#" is a Democratic senator, "I#" is an Independent senator, and "R#" is a Republican senator. They are arranged so that the parties are separated and a majority is clear by crossing the middle.

Before the elections

Each block indicates an incumbent senator's actions going into the election. Both Independents caucus with the Democrats.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
N.H.
Ran
D39
Minn.
Ran
D38
Mich.
Ran
D37
Mass.
Ran
D36
Ill.
Ran
D35
Del.
Ran
D34
Ala.
Ran
D33 D32 D31
D41
N.J.
Ran
D42
N.M.
Retired
D43
Ore.
Ran
D44
R.I.
Ran
D45
Va.
Ran
I1 I2 R53
Wyo.
Retired
R52
W.Va.
Ran
R51
Texas
Ran
Majority → R50
Tenn.
Retired
R41
La.
Ran
R42
Maine
Ran
R43
Miss.
Ran
R44
Mont.
Ran
R45
Neb.
Ran
R46
N.C.
Ran
R47
Okla.
Ran
R48
S.C.
Ran
R49
S.D.
Ran
R40
Ky.
Ran
R39
Kan.
Retired
R38
Iowa
Ran
R37
Idaho
Ran
R36
Ga. (sp)
Ran
R35
Ga. (reg)
Ran
R34
Colo.
Ran
R33
Ark.
Ran
R32
Ariz. (sp)
Ran
R31
Alaska
Ran
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10

After the elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30
D40
N.J.
Reelected
D39
N.H.
Reelected
D38
Minn.
Reelected
D37
Mich.
Reelected
D36
Mass.
Reelected
D35
Ill.
Reelected
D34
Del.
Reelected
D33 D32 D31
D41
N.M.
Hold
D42
Ore.
Reelected
D43
R.I.
Reelected
D44
Va.
Reelected
D45
Ariz. (sp)
Gain
D46
Colo.
Gain
D47
Ga. (reg).
Gain
D48
Ga. (sp).
Gain
I1 I2
Majority (with independents and Vice President)[b]
R41
Neb.
Reelected
R42
N.C.
Reelected
R43
Okla.
Reelected
R44
S.C.
Reelected
R45
S.D.
Reelected
R46
Tenn.
Hold
R47
Texas
Reelected
R48
W.Va.
Reelected
R49
Wyo.
Hold
R50
Ala.
Gain
R40
Mont.
Reelected
R39
Miss.
Reelected
R38
Maine
Reelected
R37
La.
Reelected
R36
Ky.
Reelected
R35
Kan.
Hold
R34
Iowa
Reelected
R33
Idaho
Reelected
R32
Ark.
Reelected
R31
Alaska
Reelected
R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28 R29 R30
R20 R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican
I# Independent, caucusing with Democrats

Final pre-election predictions

Several sites and individuals published predictions of competitive seats. These predictions looked at factors such as the strength of the incumbent (if the incumbent was running for reelection) and the other candidates, and the state's partisan lean (reflected in part by the state's Cook Partisan Voting Index rating). The predictions assigned ratings to each seat, indicating the predicted advantage that a party had in winning that seat. Most election predictors used:

  • "tossup": no advantage
  • "tilt" (used by some predictors): advantage that is not quite as strong as "lean"
  • "lean": slight advantage
  • "likely": significant, but surmountable, advantage
  • "safe" or "solid": near-certain chance of victory
Constituency Incumbent 2020 election ratings
State PVI[19] Senator Last
election[e]
Cook
October 29,
2020
[20]
IE
October 28,
2020
[21]
Sabato
November 2,
2020
[22]
Daily Kos
November 2,
2020
[23]
Politico
November 2,
2020
[24]
RCP
October 23,
2020
[25]
DDHQ
November 3,
2020
[26]
538[f][g]
November 3,
2020
[27]
Economist
November 3,
2020
[28]
Result[29]
Alabama R+14 Doug Jones 50.0% D
(2017 special)[h]
Lean R (flip) Lean R (flip) Likely R (flip) Likely R (flip) Lean R (flip) Likely R (flip) Safe R (flip) Likely R (flip) Safe R (flip) Tuberville
(60.1%) (flip)
Alaska R+9 Dan Sullivan 48.0% R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Likely R Lean R Sullivan
(54.3%)
Arizona
(special)
R+5 Martha McSally Appointed
(2019)[i]
Lean D (flip) Tilt D (flip) Lean D (flip) Lean D (flip) Lean D (flip) Tossup Likely D (flip) Likely D (flip) Lean D (flip) Kelly
(51.2%) (flip)
Arkansas R+15 Tom Cotton 56.5% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Cotton
(66.6%)
Colorado D+1 Cory Gardner 48.2% R Lean D (flip) Lean D (flip) Likely D (flip) Likely D (flip) Lean D (flip) Lean D (flip) Likely D (flip) Likely D (flip) Likely D (flip) Hickenlooper
(53.5%) (flip)
Delaware D+6 Chris Coons 55.8% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Solid D Safe D Safe D Solid D Safe D Coons
(59.4%)
Georgia
(regular)
R+5 David Perdue 52.9% R Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Ossoff
(50.5%) (flip)[j]
Georgia
(special)
R+5 Kelly Loeffler Appointed
(2020)[k]
Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Lean R Lean R Tossup Lean D (flip) Tossup Warnock
(51.0%) (flip)[j]
Idaho R+19 Jim Risch 65.3% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Risch
(62.6%)
Illinois D+7 Dick Durbin 53.5% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Solid D Safe D Safe D Solid D Safe D Durbin
(54.6%)
Iowa R+3 Joni Ernst 52.1% R Tossup Tossup Lean R Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Tossup Ernst
(51.8%)
Kansas R+13 Pat Roberts
(retiring)
53.1% R Lean R Tilt R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Likely R Lean R Marshall
(53.5%)
Kentucky R+15 Mitch McConnell 56.2% R Likely R Safe R Likely R Safe R Likely R Likely R Safe R Solid R Likely R McConnell
(57.8%)
Louisiana R+11 Bill Cassidy 55.9% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Safe R Solid R Likely R Cassidy
(59.3%)
Maine D+3 Susan Collins 68.5% R Tossup Tilt D (flip) Lean D (flip) Tossup Tossup Tossup Lean D (flip) Tossup Lean D (flip) Collins
(51.0%)
Massachusetts D+12 Ed Markey 61.9% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Solid D Safe D Safe D Solid D Safe D Markey
(65.8%)
Michigan D+1 Gary Peters 54.6% D Lean D Lean D Lean D Lean D Lean D Tossup Likely D Likely D Likely D Peters
(49.9%)
Minnesota D+1 Tina Smith 53.0% D
(2018 special)[l]
Safe D Safe D Likely D Likely D Likely D Tossup Likely D Solid D Likely D Smith
(48.8%)
Mississippi R+9 Cindy Hyde-Smith 53.6% R
(2018 special)[m]
Likely R Safe R Likely R Safe R Likely R Lean R Likely R Likely R Likely R Hyde-Smith
(55.3%)
Montana R+11 Steve Daines 57.9% R Tossup Tossup Lean R Lean R Tossup Tossup Lean R Lean R Lean R Daines
(54.9%)
Nebraska R+14 Ben Sasse 64.5% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Sasse
(64.7%)
New Hampshire D+1 Jeanne Shaheen 51.5% D Safe D Safe D Likely D Safe D Likely D Lean D Safe D Solid D Safe D Shaheen
(56.7%)
New Jersey D+7 Cory Booker 55.8% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Solid D Likely D Safe D Solid D Safe D Booker
(56.9%)
New Mexico D+3 Tom Udall
(retiring)
55.6% D Safe D Safe D Likely D Safe D Likely D Lean D Safe D Likely D Likely D Luján
(51.7%)
North Carolina R+3 Thom Tillis 48.8% R Tossup Tilt D (flip) Lean D (flip) Tossup Tossup Tossup Lean D (flip) Lean D (flip) Lean D (flip) Tillis
(48.7%)
Oklahoma R+20 Jim Inhofe 68.0% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Inhofe
(62.9%)
Oregon D+5 Jeff Merkley 55.7% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Solid D Safe D Safe D Solid D Safe D Merkley
(57.0%)
Rhode Island D+10 Jack Reed 70.6% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Solid D Safe D Safe D Solid D Safe D Reed
(66.5%)
South Carolina R+8 Lindsey Graham 55.3% R Tossup Tilt R Lean R Lean R Lean R Tossup Lean R Likely R Lean R Graham
(54.5%)
South Dakota R+14 Mike Rounds 50.4% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Rounds
(65.7%)
Tennessee R+14 Lamar Alexander
(retiring)
61.9% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Solid R Likely R Safe R Solid R Safe R Hagerty
(62.1%)
Texas R+8 John Cornyn 61.6% R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Lean R Likely R Likely R Lean R Cornyn
(53.6%)
Virginia D+1 Mark Warner 49.1% D Safe D Safe D Safe D Safe D Solid D Likely D Safe D Solid D Safe D Warner
(56.0%)
West Virginia R+19 Shelley Moore Capito 62.1% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Capito
(70.3%)
Wyoming R+25 Mike Enzi
(retiring)
72.2% R Safe R Safe R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Safe R Solid R Safe R Lummis
(73.1%)
Overall[n] D – 48
R – 45
7 tossups
D – 50[o]
R – 47
3 tossups
D – 50[o]
R – 48
2 tossup
D – 48
R – 47
5 tossups
D – 48
R – 47
5 tossups
D – 45
R – 46
9 tossups
D – 50[o]
R – 47
3 tossups
D – 50
R – 47
3 tossups
D – 50[o]
R – 47
3 tossups
Results:
D – 50[b]
R – 50

Election dates

State Filing deadline for
major party candidates[30][31]
Filing deadline for
write-in candidates in major party primaries[p]
Primary
election[30]
Primary
run-off
(if necessary)[30]
Filing deadline for minor
party and unaffiliated candidates[31]
Filing deadline for minor party
and unaffiliated write-in candidates[q]
General
election
Poll closing
(EST)[32]
Alabama November 8, 2019 Ineligible[33] March 3, 2020 July 14, 2020 March 3, 2020 November 3, 2020[33] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Alaska June 1, 2020 Ineligible[34] August 18, 2020 N/A August 18, 2020 October 29, 2020[35] November 3, 2020 1:00am[r]
Arizona (special) April 6, 2020 June 25, 2020[36] August 4, 2020 N/A April 6, 2020 September 24, 2020[36] November 3, 2020 9:00pm
Arkansas November 11, 2019 Ineligible[37] March 3, 2020 Not necessary May 1, 2020 August 5, 2020[37] November 3, 2020 8:30pm
Colorado March 17, 2020 April 24, 2020[38] June 30, 2020 N/A July 9, 2020 July 16, 2020[38] November 3, 2020 9:00pm
Delaware July 14, 2020 Ineligible[39] September 15, 2020 N/A September 1, 2020 September 20, 2020[40] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Georgia (regular) March 6, 2020 Ineligible[41] June 9, 2020 Not necessary August 14, 2020 September 7, 2020[42] November 3, 2020[s] 7:00pm
Georgia (special) March 6, 2020 Ineligible[41] November 3, 2020 N/A August 14, 2020 September 7, 2020[42] January 5, 2021[t] 9:00pm
Idaho March 13, 2020 May 5, 2020[43] June 2, 2020 N/A March 13, 2020 October 6, 2020[43] November 3, 2020 10:00pm
Illinois December 2, 2019 January 2, 2020[44] March 17, 2020 N/A July 20, 2020 September 3, 2020[44] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Iowa March 13, 2020 June 2, 2020[45] June 2, 2020 Not necessary March 13, 2020 November 3, 2020[45] November 3, 2020 10:00pm
Kansas June 1, 2020 Not necessary[u][46] August 4, 2020 N/A August 3, 2020 November 3, 2020[47] November 3, 2020 9:00pm
Kentucky January 10, 2020 Ineligible[48] June 23, 2020 N/A June 2, 2020 October 23, 2020[49] November 3, 2020 7:00pm
Louisiana July 24, 2020 Ineligible[50] November 3, 2020 N/A July 24, 2020 Ineligible[51] Not necessary 9:00pm
Maine March 16, 2020 April 10, 2020[52] July 14, 2020 N/A June 1, 2020 September 4, 2020[52] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Massachusetts May 5, 2020 September 1, 2020[53] September 1, 2020 N/A August 25, 2020 November 3, 2020[53] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Michigan May 8, 2020 July 24, 2020[54] August 4, 2020 N/A August 4, 2020 October 23, 2020[54] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Minnesota June 2, 2020 May 19, 2020[55] August 11, 2020 N/A June 2, 2020 October 27, 2020[55] November 3, 2020 9:00pm
Mississippi January 10, 2020 Not necessary[v][56] March 10, 2020 Not necessary January 10, 2020 November 3, 2020[w][56] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Montana March 9, 2020 April 8, 2020[57] June 2, 2020 N/A June 1, 2020 September 9, 2020[57] November 3, 2020 10:00pm
Nebraska March 2, 2020 May 1, 2020[58] May 12, 2020 N/A August 3, 2020 October 23, 2020[58] November 3, 2020 9:00pm
New Hampshire June 12, 2020 September 8, 2020[59] September 8, 2020 N/A September 2, 2020 November 3, 2020[60] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
New Jersey March 30, 2020 July 7, 2020[61] July 7, 2020 N/A July 7, 2020 November 3, 2020[61] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
New Mexico March 10, 2020 March 17, 2020[62] June 2, 2020 N/A June 25, 2020 June 26, 2020[63] November 3, 2020 9:00pm
North Carolina December 20, 2019 Ineligible[64] March 3, 2020 Not necessary March 3, 2020 July 21, 2020[65] November 3, 2020 7:30pm
Oklahoma April 10, 2020 Ineligible[66] June 30, 2020 Not necessary April 10, 2020 Ineligible[51] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Oregon March 10, 2020 May 19, 2020[67] May 19, 2020 N/A August 25, 2020 November 3, 2020[67] November 3, 2020 10:00pm
Rhode Island June 24, 2020 September 8, 2020[68] September 8, 2020 N/A June 24, 2020 November 3, 2020[68] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
South Carolina March 30, 2020 Ineligible[69] June 9, 2020 Not necessary July 20, 2020 November 3, 2020[70] November 3, 2020 7:00pm
South Dakota March 31, 2020 Ineligible[51] June 2, 2020 Not necessary April 28, 2020 Ineligible[51] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Tennessee April 2, 2020 June 17, 2020[71] August 6, 2020 N/A April 2, 2020 September 14, 2020[72] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Texas December 9, 2019 Ineligible[73] March 3, 2020 July 14, 2020 August 13, 2020[x] August 17, 2020[74] November 3, 2020 8:00pm
Virginia March 26, 2020 Ineligible[75] June 23, 2020 N/A June 23, 2020 November 3, 2020[76] November 3, 2020 7:00pm
West Virginia January 25, 2020 Ineligible[77] June 9, 2020 N/A July 31, 2020 September 15, 2020[78] November 3, 2020 7:30pm
Wyoming May 29, 2020 August 18, 2020[y][79] August 18, 2020 N/A August 25, 2020 November 3, 2020[80] November 3, 2020 9:00pm

Race summary

Special elections during the preceding Congress

In each special election, the winner's term begins immediately after their election is certified by their state's government.

Elections are sorted by date then state.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Arizona
(Class 3)
Martha McSally Republican 2019 (Appointed) Incumbent lost election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Georgia
(Class 3)
Kelly Loeffler Republican 2020 (Appointed) Incumbent lost election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.

Elections leading to the next Congress

In each general election, the winner is elected for the term beginning January 3, 2021.

State
(linked to
summaries below)
Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Doug Jones Democratic 2017 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Alaska Dan Sullivan Republican 2014 Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Dan Sullivan (Republican) 53.9%
  • Al Gross (Independent) 41.2%
  • John Wayne Howe (Alaskan Independence) 4.7%
Arkansas Tom Cotton Republican 2014 Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Tom Cotton (Republican) 66.5%
  • Ricky Dale Harrington, Jr. (Libertarian) 33.5%
Colorado Cory Gardner Republican 2014 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
  • Green tickY John Hickenlooper (Democratic) 53.5%
  • Cory Gardner (Republican) 44.2%
  • Raymon Doane (Libertarian) 1.7%
  • Daniel Doyle (Approval Voting) 0.3%
  • Stephan "Seku" Evans (Unity) 0.3%
Delaware Chris Coons Democratic 2010 (Special)
2014
Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Chris Coons (Democratic) 59.4%
  • Lauren Witzke (Republican) 37.9%
  • Mark Turley (Delaware Independent) 1.6%
  • Nadine Frost (Libertarian) 1.1%
Georgia David Perdue Republican 2014 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Idaho Jim Risch Republican 2008
2014
Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Jim Risch (Republican) 62.6%
  • Paulette Jordan (Democratic) 33.3%
  • Natalie Fleming (Independent) 2.9%
  • Ray Writz (Constitution) 1.2%
Illinois Dick Durbin Democratic 1996
2002
2008
2014
Incumbent reelected.
Iowa Joni Ernst Republican 2014 Incumbent reelected.
Kansas Pat Roberts Republican 1996
2002
2008
2014
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Kentucky Mitch McConnell Republican 1984
1990
1996
2002
2008
2014
Incumbent reelected.
Louisiana Bill Cassidy Republican 2014 Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Bill Cassidy (Republican) 59.3%
  • Adrian Perkins (Democratic) 19%
  • Champ Edwards (Democratic) 11.1%
  • Antoine Pierce (Democratic) 2.7%
  • Dustin Murphy (Republican) 1.9%
  • Drew David Knight (Democratic) 1.8%
  • Beryl Billiot (Independent) 0.8%
  • John Paul Bourgeois (Independent) 0.8%
  • Peter Wenstrup (Democratic) 0.7%
  • Aaron Sigler (Libertarian) 0.5%
  • Vinny Mendoza (Independent) 0.4%
  • Melinda Mary Price (Independent) 0.4%
  • Jamar Montgomery (Independent) 0.3%
  • Reno Daret III (Independent) 0.2%
  • Xan John (Independent) 0.1%
Maine Susan Collins Republican 1996
2002
2008
2014
Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Susan Collins (Republican) 51%
  • Sara Gideon (Democratic) 42.4%
  • Lisa Savage (Independent) 5%
  • Max Linn (Independent) 1.6%
Massachusetts Ed Markey Democratic 2013 (Special)
2014
Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Ed Markey (Democratic) 66.2%
  • Kevin O'Connor (Republican) 33%
  • Write-ins 0.8%
Michigan Gary Peters Democratic 2014 Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Gary Peters (Democratic) 49.9%
  • John James (Republican) 48.2%
  • Valerie Willis (U.S. Taxpayers) 0.9%
  • Marcia Squier (Green) 0.7%
  • Doug Dern (Natural Law) 0.2%
Minnesota Tina Smith Democratic 2018 (Appointed)
2018 (Special)
Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Tina Smith (Democratic) 48.8%
  • Jason Lewis (Republican) 43.5%
  • Kevin O'Connor (Legal Marijuana Now) 5.9%
  • Oliver Steinberg (Legalize Cannabis) 1.8%
Mississippi Cindy Hyde-Smith Republican 2018 (Appointed)
2018 (Special)
Incumbent reelected.
Montana Steve Daines Republican 2014 Incumbent reelected.
Nebraska Ben Sasse Republican 2014 Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Ben Sasse (Republican) 59.6%
  • Chris Janicek (Democratic) 23.2%
  • Preston Love Jr. (Democratic) (write-in) 11.6%
  • Gene Siadek (Libertarian) 5.6%
New Hampshire Jeanne Shaheen Democratic 2008
2014
Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Jeanne Shaheen (Democratic) 56.7%
  • Corky Messner (Republican) 41%
  • Justin O'Donnell (Libertarian) 2.3%
New Jersey Cory Booker Democratic 2013 (Special)
2014
Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Cory Booker (Democratic) 57.2%
  • Rik Mehta (Republican) 40.9%
  • Madelyn R. Hoffman (Green) 0.9%
  • Veronica Fernandez (Of, By, For!) 0.7%
  • Daniel Burke (LaRouche was Right) 0.3%


New Mexico Tom Udall Democratic 2008
2014
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Green tickY Ben Ray Luján (Democratic) 51.7%
  • Mark Ronchetti (Republican) 45.6%
  • Bob Walsh (Libertarian) 2.6%
North Carolina Thom Tillis Republican 2014 Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Thom Tillis (Republican) 48.7%
  • Cal Cunningham (Democratic) 46.9%
  • Shannon Bray (Libertarian) 3.1%
  • Kevin Hayes (Constitution) 1.2%
Oklahoma Jim Inhofe Republican 1994 (Special)
1996
2002
2008
2014
Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Jim Inhofe (Republican) 62.9%
  • Abby Broyles (Democratic) 32.8%
  • Robert Murphy (Libertarian) 2.2%
  • Joan Farr (Independent) 1.4%
  • A. D. Nesbit (Independent) 0.7%
Oregon Jeff Merkley Democratic 2008
2014
Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Jeff Merkley (Democratic) 56.9%
  • Jo Rae Perkins (Republican) 39.3%
  • Gary Dye (Libertarian) 1.8%
  • Ibrahim Taher (Pacific Green) 1.8%
  • Write-ins 0.1%
Rhode Island Jack Reed Democratic 1996
2002
2008
2014
Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY Jack Reed (Democratic) 66.6%
  • Allen Waters (Republican) 33.4%
South Carolina Lindsey Graham Republican 2002
2008
2014
Incumbent reelected.


South Dakota Mike Rounds Republican 2014 Incumbent reelected.
Tennessee Lamar Alexander Republican 2002
2008
2014
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Bill Hagerty (Republican) 62.2%
  • Marquita Bradshaw (Democratic) 35.2%
  • Elizabeth McLeod (Independent) 0.6%
  • Yomi Faparusi (Independent) 0.4%
  • Steven Hooper (Independent) 0.3%
  • Kacey Morgan (Independent) 0.3%
  • Ronnie Henley (Independent) 0.3%
  • Aaron James (Independent) 0.2%
  • Eric Stansberry (Independent) 0.2%
  • Dean Hill (Independent) 0.2%
  • Jeffrey Grunau (Independent) 0.1%
Texas John Cornyn Republican 2002
2008
2014
Incumbent reelected.
  • Green tickY John Cornyn (Republican) 53.5%
  • MJ Hegar (Democratic) 43.9%
  • Kerry McKennon (Libertarian) 1.9%
  • David B. Collins (Green) 0.7%
Virginia Mark Warner Democratic 2008
2014
Incumbent reelected.
West Virginia Shelley Moore Capito Republican 2014 Incumbent reelected.
Wyoming Mike Enzi Republican 1996
2002
2008
2014
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.

Closest races

12 races had a margin of victory under 10%:

State Party of winner Margin
Georgia (regular) Democratic (flip) 1.06%[z]
Michigan Democratic 1.68%
North Carolina Republican 1.75%
Georgia (special) Democratic (flip) 1.91%
Arizona (special) Democratic (flip) 2.35%
Minnesota Democratic 5.24%
New Mexico Democratic 6.11%
Iowa Republican 6.59%
Maine Republican 8.59%
Colorado Democratic (flip) 9.32%
Texas Republican 9.64%
Mississippi Republican 9.97%

Alabama

Alabama election

  Tommy-Tuberville-Coaches-Tour-5-29-08-(cropped).jpg Senator Doug Jones official photo (cropped 2).jpg
Nominee Tommy Tuberville Doug Jones
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,392,076 920,478
Percentage 60.1% 39.7%

U.S. senator before election

Doug Jones
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Tommy Tuberville
Republican

Incumbent Democrat Doug Jones was elected in a special election in 2017, narrowly defeating Republican nominee Roy Moore.[82][83] He ran for a full term in 2020, losing to Republican Tommy Tuberville in a landslide.

Tuberville is a former football head coach for Auburn University. He defeated former senator and attorney general Jeff Sessions in a July 14 runoff to secure the Republican nomination, after securing President Donald Trump's endorsement. Sessions occupied the seat until 2017 when he resigned to become attorney general in the Trump administration.

Alabama is one of the country's most Republican states, and Jones's win was in part due to sexual assault allegations against nominee Roy Moore during the special election; most analysts expected the seat to flip back to GOP control. Tuberville defeated Jones by more than 20 percentage points.[84]

Alaska

Alaska election

← 2014
2026 →
  Senator Dan Sullivan official (cropped).jpg
Nominee Dan Sullivan Al Gross[aa]
Party Republican Independent
Popular vote 191,112 146,068
Percentage 53.90% 41.19%

U.S. senator before election

Dan Sullivan
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Dan Sullivan
Republican

One-term Republican Dan Sullivan was elected in 2014, defeating incumbent Democrat Mark Begich. He defeated independent challenger Al Gross to win a second term in office.[85]

Potential Democratic candidates included Begich, who was the Democratic nominee for governor of Alaska in 2018, and Anchorage mayor Ethan Berkowitz, who was the Democratic nominee for governor of Alaska in 2010. One Democrat, Edgar Blatchford, filed to run by the June 1 filing deadline.[86]

Gross, an orthopedic surgeon and fisherman, declared his candidacy on July 2, 2019. as an Independent.[87] He participated in a joint primary for the Alaska Democratic Party, Alaska Libertarian Party and Alaskan Independence Party, winning the nomination as an independent supported by the Democratic Party.

Most people though that it could be close, but Sullivan defeated Gross by 13.7 percentage points.[88]

Arizona (special)

Arizona special election

← 2016
2022 →
  Mark Kelly (2016).jpg Sen. Martha McSally official Senate headshot 116th congress (cropped).jpg
Nominee Mark Kelly Martha McSally
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,716,467 1,637,661
Percentage 51.2% 48.8%

U.S. senator before election

Martha McSally
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Mark Kelly
Democratic

Six-term Republican John McCain was reelected in 2016 but died in office on August 25, 2018.[89] Republican governor Doug Ducey appointed former senator Jon Kyl to fill the seat temporarily.[90] After Kyl stepped down at the end of the year, Ducey appointed outgoing U.S. Representative Martha McSally to replace him after she lost the election to the other Arizona senate seat.[91] McSally ran in the 2020 special election to fill the remaining two years of the term,[92] losing to Democrat Mark Kelly, a former astronaut.

Once a solidly Republican state, Arizona trended more purple in the late 2010s. Incumbent Republican Martha McSally was appointed to the late John McCain's seat two months after losing the 2018 Arizona U.S. Senate election to Democrat Kyrsten Sinema. Her Democratic opponent, astronaut Mark Kelly, raised significantly more money and generally led her by 5 to 15 points in the polling. McSally also suffered from low approval ratings due to her strong allegiance to Trump, who was unpopular in Arizona despite having won the state by 3.5 points in 2016.[93]

Arkansas

Arkansas election

← 2014
2026 →
  Tom Cotton official Senate photo (cropped).jpg Ricky Dale Harrington Jr (cropped).jpg
Nominee Tom Cotton Ricky Dale Harrington Jr.
Party Republican Libertarian
Popular vote 793,871 399,390
Percentage 66.5% 33.5%

U.S. senator before election

Tom Cotton
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Tom Cotton
Republican

One-term Republican Tom Cotton was elected in 2014 after serving two years in the United States House of Representatives, defeating incumbent Democratic senator Mark Pryor by a comfortable margin. Cotton was reelected to a second term by a 33-point margin, defeating Libertarian Ricky Dale Harrington Jr[94][95][96]

Joshua Mahony, a nonprofit executive and 2018 Democratic nominee for Congress in Arkansas's 3rd congressional district, filed to run for the Democratic nomination,[97] but dropped out just after the filing deadline.[98] No other Democrats filed within the filing deadline. Progressive activist Dan Whitfield ran as an independent but suspended his campaign on October 1, 2020, after failing to qualify for the ballot.[99]

Colorado

Colorado election

← 2014
2026 →
  John Hickenlooper June 2019.jpg Cory Gardner official Senate portrait (cropped).jpeg
Nominee John Hickenlooper Cory Gardner
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,731,114 1,429,492
Percentage 53.5% 44.2%

U.S. senator before election

Cory Gardner
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

John Hickenlooper
Democratic

One-term Republican Cory Gardner was elected in 2014 after serving four years in the United States House of Representatives, narrowly defeating one-term Democrat Mark Udall. Gardner sought a second term but lost to Democrat John Hickenlooper by 9.3 percentage points.[100]

Hickenlooper is a popular former governor of Colorado, and led Gardner by as much as 20 percentage points in polls, with most pundits considering him a heavy favorite. Gardner was Colorado's only Republican statewide officeholder, and the once purple state has trended increasingly Democratic since his narrow win in 2014. Gardner also had low approval ratings due to his strong allegiance to Trump, who lost Colorado in 2016 to Hillary Clinton by 4.9%, and in 2020 to Joe Biden by 13.5%.[101][102] Hickenlooper also raised significantly more money than Gardner.[103]

Delaware

Delaware election

← 2014
2026 →
  Chris Coons, official portrait, 112th Congress (cropped).jpg
Nominee Chris Coons Lauren Witzke
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 291,804 186,054
Percentage 59.4% 37.9%

U.S. senator before election

Chris Coons
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Chris Coons
Democratic

One-term Democrat Chris Coons was reelected in 2014; he first took office after winning a 2010 special election, which occurred after longtime senator Joe Biden resigned to become vice president of the United States (Biden also won the 2020 presidential election and is now president-elect). He faced an unsuccessful primary challenge from technology executive Jessica Scarane. Conservative activist Lauren Witzke and attorney Jim DeMartino ran for the Republican nomination.

The Delaware primary was held on September 15, 2020.[104]

Georgia

Due to Republican Senator Johnny Isakson's resignation from office for health reasons in 2019, both of Georgia's Senate seats were up for election in November 2020.[105] The state had tilted Republican in Senate races since the mid-1990s, but increased support for Democrats in populous suburbs has made office elections more competitive; a close governor's race, multiple close U.S. House races, and many other close local office races resulted in Democratic gains in 2018 elections. Both the regular and special election were considered highly competitive toss-ups.[106] National attention was in the state as the balance of power was at the hands of the voters in Georgia.

Georgia (regular)

Georgia regular election

← 2014 November 3, 2020 (first round)
January 5, 2021 (runoff)
2026 →
  Jon Ossoff 2020 2 (cropped).jpg David Perdue, Official Portrait, 114th Congress (cropped).jpg
Nominee Jon Ossoff David Perdue
Party Democratic Republican
First round 2,374,519
47.9%
2,462,617
49.7%
Runoff 2,268,612
50.61%
2,213,604
49.39%

U.S. senator before election

David Perdue
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Jon Ossoff
Democratic

One-term Republican David Perdue was elected in 2014, and sought a second term.[107]

Jon Ossoff, a former congressional candidate, documentary film producer, and investigative journalist, defeated former Columbus mayor Teresa Tomlinson and 2018 lieutenant governor nominee Sarah Riggs Amico in the Democratic primary to secure nomination.[108][109] He faced incumbent Republican David Perdue in the November 3 election.

In the November election, no candidate received 50% or more of the total vote; per Georgia law, the election advanced to a runoff between the top two finishers, Ossoff and Perdue, on January 5, 2021. Ossoff was projected the winner on January 6,[110] and Perdue conceded on January 8.[111]

Georgia (special)

2020–21 United States Senate special election in Georgia

← 2016 November 3, 2020 (first round)
January 5, 2021 (runoff)
2022 →
  Raphael Warnock for Senate (cropped).jpg Kelly Loeffler (cropped).jpg
Candidate Raphael Warnock Kelly Loeffler
Party Democratic Republican
First round 1,617,035
32.9%
1,273,214
25.9%
Runoff 2,287,787
51.04%
2,194,480
48.96%

U.S. senator before election

Kelly Loeffler
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Raphael Warnock
Democratic

Three-term Senator Johnny Isakson announced on August 28, 2019, that he would resign from the Senate on December 31, 2019, citing health concerns.[112] Georgia governor Brian Kemp appointed Republican Kelly Loeffler to replace Isakson until a regular election could be held; Loeffler took office on January 6, 2020, and competed in the November 2020 election to retain her seat.[113]

Other Republicans who ran for the seat included Wayne Johnson, former chief operating officer of the Office of Federal Student Aid,[114] and four-term U.S. representative Doug Collins.[115]

A "jungle primary" was held November 3, 2020, but no candidate won more than 50% of the vote, so a runoff election between the top two finishers, Loeffler and Democratic challenger Raphael Warnock, was held on January 5, 2021.[116] Warnock defeated Loeffler, who initially refused to concede and vowed to challenge the outcome,[117] but conceded on January 7, after the storming of the U.S. Capitol.[118]

Idaho

Idaho election

← 2014
2026 →
  Jim Risch 113th Congress.jpg PauletteJordanIF17 (cropped).JPG
Nominee Jim Risch Paulette Jordan
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 537,446 285,864
Percentage 62.6% 33.3%

U.S. senator before election

Jim Risch
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Jim Risch
Republican

Republican Jim Risch successfully ran for a third term in 2020, defeating Democrat Paulette Jordan by a landslide. Jordan is a former gubernatorial nominee and former Coeur d'Alene Tribal Councilwoman.

Illinois

Illinois election

← 2014
2026 →
  Richard Durbin official photo (cropped).jpg
Nominee Dick Durbin Mark Curran
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 3,278,930 2,319,870
Percentage 54.9% 38.9%

U.S. senator before election

Dick Durbin
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Dick Durbin
Democratic

Democrat Dick Durbin, the Senate minority whip, easily won a fifth term in office, defeating Republican Mark Curran by a 16-point margin.[119]

Curran served as sheriff of Lake County from 2006 to 2018 and won the Republican primary with 41.55% of the vote.[120]

Antiwar activist Marilyn Jordan Lawlor[121] and state representative Anne Stava-Murray[122] briefly challenged Durbin in the Democratic primary, but both ended up withdrawing.[123][124]

2019 Chicago mayoral candidate Willie Wilson, a businessman and perennial candidate, ran as a member of the "Willie Wilson Party," with the backing of a handful of Chicago aldermen and the Chicago Police Union.

Iowa

Iowa election

← 2014
2026 →
  Joni Ernst, official portrait, 116th Congress 2 (cropped).jpg Theresa Greenfield.jpg
Nominee Joni Ernst Theresa Greenfield
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 864,997 754,859
Percentage 51.7% 45.2%

U.S. senator before election

Joni Ernst
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Joni Ernst
Republican

Republican Joni Ernst, first elected to the Senate in 2014, won a second term in office, defeating Democrat Theresa Greenfield.[125]

Greenfield won the Democratic nomination, defeating former vice-admiral Michael T. Franken, attorney Kimberly Graham, and businessman Eddie Mauro in the primary.

Ernst's popularity had dropped in polls, and many considered this seat a possible Democratic pickup, but Ernst was reelected by a larger-than-expected 6.5 points.

Kansas

Kansas election

← 2014
2026 →
  Roger Marshall official portrait (cropped).jpg Barbara Bollier cropped portrait.jpg
Nominee Roger Marshall Barbara Bollier
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 727,962 571,530
Percentage 53.2% 41.8%

U.S. senator before election

Pat Roberts
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Roger Marshall
Republican

Republican Congressman Roger Marshall won the seat held by retiring Senator Pat Roberts, defeating Democrat Barbara Bollier by a larger-than-expected 11.4 points.

In the Republican primary, Marshall defeated former Kansas secretary of state Kris Kobach,[126] state Turnpike Authority chairman Dave Lindstrom,[127] state senate president Susan Wagle, and others.[128]

There was considerable speculation about a Senate bid by Mike Pompeo (the United States secretary of state, former director of the Central Intelligence Agency, and former U.S. representative for Kansas's 4th congressional district), but he did not run.[129][130]

Barbara Bollier, a state senator and former Republican,[131] defeated former congressional candidate Robert Tillman[132] for the Democratic nomination.

Kentucky

Kentucky election

← 2014
2026 →
  Mitch McConnell 2016 official photo (cropped).jpg Amy McGrath Event- (49220643717) 1.jpg
Nominee Mitch McConnell Amy McGrath
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,233,315 816,257
Percentage 57.8% 38.2%

U.S. senator before election

Mitch McConnell
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Mitch McConnell
Republican

Republican Mitch McConnell, the Senate Majority Leader, defeated Democrat Amy McGrath by 19.6 percentage points, winning a 7th term in office.

Louisiana

Louisiana election

← 2014
2026 →
  Bill Cassidy official Senate photo (cropped).jpg
Nominee Bill Cassidy Adrian Perkins Derrick Edwards
Party Republican Democratic Democratic
Popular vote 1,228,908 394,049 229,814
Percentage 59.3% 19.0% 11.1%

U.S. senator before election

Bill Cassidy
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Bill Cassidy
Republican

Republican Bill Cassidy won a second term in office, defeating three-term Democrat Mary Landrieu and others.[133]

A Louisiana primary (a form of jungle primary) was held on November 3. Had no candidate won a majority of the vote in the primary, a runoff election would have been held, but Cassidy won in the first round.

Maine

Maine election

← 2014
2026 →
  2015 Susan Collins crop.jpg
Nominee Susan Collins Sara Gideon
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 417,645[ab] 347,223[ab]
Percentage 50.98% 42.39%

U.S. senator before election

Susan Collins
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Susan Collins
Republican

Republican Susan Collins won a fifth term in office, defeating Speaker of the Maine House of Representatives Sara Gideon,[134]

Gideon consistently led Collins in polls for almost the entire election cycle. Collins is considered one of the most moderate Republicans in the Senate and had never faced a competitive reelection campaign, even though Maine leans Democratic. But she faced growing unpopularity due to her increasingly conservative voting record and her votes to confirm Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court and to acquit Trump in his impeachment trial. Despite almost all polling and Gideon's formidable funding,[135] Collins was reelected by a surprising 8.5-point margin.

Educator and activist Lisa Savage also ran as a candidate for the Green party.[136]

Massachusetts

Massachusetts election

← 2014
2026 →
  Edward Markey, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg
Nominee Ed Markey Kevin O'Connor
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 2,357,809 1,177,765
Percentage 66.15% 33.05%

U.S. senator before election

Ed Markey
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Ed Markey
Democratic

Democrat Ed Markey was reelected in 2014, having won a 2013 special election to replace longtime incumbent John Kerry, who resigned to become U.S. secretary of state. He easily won a second full term in 2020, defeating Republican Kevin O'Connor by more than 33 percentage points.[137]

Markey fended off a primary challenge from Joe Kennedy III, four-term U.S. representative for Massachusetts's Fourth District and grandson of former U.S. senator and U.S. attorney general Robert F. Kennedy. This marked the first time a member of the Kennedy family lost an election in Massachusetts.[138]

O'Connor defeated conspiracy theorist Shiva Ayyadurai, a former independent senate candidate, in the Republican primary.[139][140]

On August 24, 2020, perennial candidate Vermin Supreme launched a write-in campaign for the Libertarian nomination,[141] but received too few votes to qualify for the general election ballot.[142]

Michigan

Michigan election

← 2014
2026 →
  Gary Peters official photo 115th congress.jpg John James 3 (1).png
Nominee Gary Peters John James
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 2,734,568 2,642,233
Percentage 49.90% 48.22%

U.S. senator before election

Gary Peters
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Gary Peters
Democratic

Democrat Gary Peters narrowly won a second term in office,[143] defeating Republican John James.

James won a Republican Michigan Senate nomination for his second time,[144] having run against incumbent Democrat Debbie Stabenow in 2018 for Michigan's other senate seat. He faced only token opposition for the 2020 Republican nomination, running against perennial candidate Bob Carr.[145]

Minnesota

Minnesota election

← 2018
2026 →
  Tina Smith, official portrait, 116th congress (cropped).jpg Jason Lewis, official portrait, 115th congress (cropped).jpg
Nominee Tina Smith Jason Lewis Kevin O'Connor
Party Democratic (DFL) Republican Legal Marijuana Now
Popular vote 1,566,522 1,398,145 190,154
Percentage 48.74% 43.50% 5.91%

U.S. senator before election

Tina Smith
Democratic (DFL)

Elected U.S. senator

Tina Smith
Democratic (DFL)

Incumbent Democrat Tina Smith was appointed to the U.S. Senate to replace Al Franken in 2018 after serving as lieutenant governor, and won a special election later in 2018 to serve the remainder of Franken's term. She defeated Republican Jason Lewis, winning her first full term in office.[146]

Mississippi

Mississippi election
Flag of Mississippi.svg
  Cindy Hyde-Smith official photo (cropped).jpg Mike Espy 20120223-OCE-RBN-1281 (cropped 2).jpg
Nominee Cindy Hyde-Smith Mike Espy
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 709,539 578,806
Percentage 54.10% 44.13%

U.S. senator before election

Cindy Hyde-Smith
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Cindy Hyde-Smith
Republican

Incumbent Republican Cindy Hyde-Smith won her first full term in office, defeating Democrat and former U.S. secretary of agriculture Mike Espy by 10 percentage points.[147] This race was an exact rematch of the 2018 Mississippi Senate special election, in which Hyde-Smith defeated Espy for the remaining two years of the seat's term.

Libertarian candidate Jimmy Edwards also made the general election ballot.

Montana

Montana election

← 2014
2026 →
  Steve Daines, Official Portrait, 116th Congress.jpg Steve Bullock by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Nominee Steve Daines Steve Bullock
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 333,174 272,463
Percentage 55.01% 44.99%

U.S. senator before election

Steve Daines
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Steve Daines
Republican

Republican Steve Daines won a second term in office, defeating the Democratic nominee, Montana Governor Steve Bullock.[148]

Daines was opposed (before his nomination) in the Republican primary by hardware store manager Daniel Larson and former Democratic speaker of the Montana House of Representatives John Driscoll, who changed parties in 2020.[149]

Bullock won the Democratic nomination,[150] defeating nuclear engineer and U.S. Navy veteran John Mues.[151]

Libertarian and Green party candidates were set to appear on the general election ballot, but the Libertarians refused to nominate a replacement after their nominee withdrew and the Greens' nominee was disqualified.

Once Bullock filed his candidacy, the race became seen as highly competitive. Bullock is a popular governor and a moderate, led in many polls in the spring and summer of 2020, and raised more money than Daines. Closer to election day, Bullock slightly trailed in polls, but the election was still seen as relatively competitive. Daines defeated Bullock by a larger-than-expected 10-point margin.

Nebraska

Nebraska election

← 2014
2026 →
  Ben Sasse official portrait (cropped).jpg
Nominee Ben Sasse Chris Janicek Gene Siadek
Party Republican Democratic Libertarian
Popular vote 583,507 227,191 55,115
Percentage 67.39% 26.24% 6.37%

U.S. senator before election

Ben Sasse
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Ben Sasse
Republican

Republican Ben Sasse easily won a second term in office, defeating Democrat Chris Janicek by more than 40 percentage points.[152][failed verification]

Sasse had defeated businessman and former Lancaster County Republican Party chair Matt Innis in the Republican primary with 75.2% of the vote.

Businessman and 2018 U.S. Senate candidate Chris Janicek won the Democratic primary with 30.7% of the vote, defeating six other candidates.

Libertarian candidate Gene Siadek also appeared on the general election ballot.

After the primary election, the Nebraska Democratic party withdrew its support from Janicek when allegations that he sexually harassed a campaign staffer emerged.[153] Janicek refused to leave the race despite the state party endorsing his former primary opponent,[clarification needed] which led former Democratic Congressman Brad Ashford to announce a write-in campaign on August 23, 2020.[154][155] After Janicek vowed to remain in the race anyway, Ashford withdrew on August 27, citing lack of time and resources necessary for a U.S. Senate campaign.[156] The state Democratic Party subsequently threw its support behind longtime Nebraska activist Preston Love, Jr., who declared a write-in candidacy for the seat.[157][158]

New Hampshire

New Hampshire election

← 2014
2026 →
  Jeanne Shaheen, official Senate portrait cropped.jpg
Nominee Jeanne Shaheen Corky Messner
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 450,778 326,229
Percentage 56.63% 40.99%

U.S. senator before election

Jeanne Shaheen
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Jeanne Shaheen
Democratic

Two-term Democrat Jeanne Shaheen won a third term in office by nearly 16 percentage points, defeating Republican Corky Messner.[159]

Messner defeated U.S. Army brigadier general Donald C. Bolduc and perennial candidate Andy Martin for the Republican nomination,[160][161][162] winning the nomination on September 8.

Libertarian Justin O'Donnell also appeared on the general election ballot.[163]

New Jersey

New Jersey election

← 2014
2026 →
  Cory Booker, official portrait, 114th Congress.jpg
Nominee Cory Booker Rik Mehta
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 2,541,178 1,817,052
Percentage 57.23% 40.92%

U.S. senator before election

Cory Booker
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Cory Booker
Democratic

Democrat Cory Booker won a second full term in office, having first won his seat in a 2013 special election after serving seven years as the mayor of Newark. He defeated Republican Rick Mehta by a margin of more than 16 percentage points.

Booker had sought his party's nomination for President of the United States in 2020. He suspended his presidential campaign on January 13, 2020, and confirmed his intention to seek a second Senate term.[164]

Attorney Rik Mehta defeated engineer Hirsh Singh, 2018 Independent U.S. Senate candidate Tricia Flanagan, 2018 independent U.S. Senate candidate Natalie Lynn Rivera, and Eugene Anagnos for the Republican nomination.

Green Party candidate Madelyn Hoffman and two independent candidates also appeared on the general election ballot.

New Jersey has not elected a Republican senator since 1972, and all pundits expected Booker to be easily reelected.[165]

New Mexico

New Mexico election

← 2014
2026 →
  BenLujan2016 (cropped).jpg Mark Ronchetti.jpg
Nominee Ben Ray Luján Mark Ronchetti
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 474,483 418,483
Percentage 51.73% 45.62%

U.S. senator before election

Tom Udall
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Ben Ray Luján
Democratic

Two-term Democrat Tom Udall is the only incumbent Democratic U.S. senator retiring in 2020.[166] Demcoratic U.S. representative Ben Ray Luján[167] defeated Republican Mark Ronchetti by 6 percentage points.

Luján won the Democratic nomination without serious opposition.

Ronchetti, the former KRQE chief meteorologist, defeated former U.S. Interior Department official Gavin Clarkson and executive director for the New Mexico Alliance for Life Elisa Martinez in the primary.[168][169][170]

Libertarian Bob Walsh also appeared on the general election ballot.[citation needed]

North Carolina

North Carolina election

← 2014
2026 →
  Thom Tillis Official Photo (cropped).jpg James "Cal" Cunningham (cropped 2).jpg
Nominee Thom Tillis Cal Cunningham
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 2,665,598 2,569,965
Percentage 48.69% 46.94%

U.S. senator before election

Thom Tillis
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Thom Tillis
Republican

Republican Thom Tillis won a second term in office, defeating Democratic former state senator Cal Cunningham.

Cunningham defeated state senator Erica D. Smith and Mecklenburg County commissioner Trevor Fuller for the Democratic nomination. Tillis defeated three opponents.[171]

The Libertarian Party and the Constitution Party had candidates on the general election ballot.

Despite having grown unpopular among both centrist and conservative Republicans due to his inconsistent support of Trump, and trailing narrowly in polls for almost the entire cycle,[172] Tillis won reelection by nearly 2 points.[173]

Oklahoma

Oklahoma election

← 2014
2026 →
  Jim Inhofe official portrait.jpg
Nominee Jim Inhofe Abby Broyles
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 979,140 509,763
Percentage 62.91% 32.75%

U.S. senator before election

Jim Inhofe
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Jim Inhofe
Republican

Republican Jim Inhofe easily won a fifth term in office, defeating Democrat Abby Broyles by more than 30 percentage points.

Inhofe defeated J.J. Stitt, a farmer and gun shop owner, and Neil Mavis, a former Libertarian Party candidate, for the Republican nomination.[174]

Broyles, an attorney, defeated perennial candidate Sheila Bilyeu and 2018 5th congressional district candidate Elysabeth Britt for the Democratic nomination.

Libertarian candidate Robert Murphy and two Independents also appeared on the general election ballot.

Oklahoma is one of the most solidly Republican states[19] and Inhofe won in a landslide.

Oregon

Oregon election

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2026 →
  Jeff Merkley, 115th official photo (cropped).jpg Jo Rae Perkins.png
Nominee Jeff Merkley Jo Rae Perkins
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,321,047 912,814
Percentage 56.91% 39.32%

U.S. senator before election

Jeff Merkley
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Jeff Merkley
Democratic

Democrat Jeff Merkley won a third term in office, defeating Republican Jo Rae Perkins by more than 17 percentage points. Merkley also received the Oregon Independent Party and the Working Families Party nominations.[175]

Perkins, a 2014 U.S. Senate and 2018 U.S. House candidate, defeated three other candidates in the Republican primary with 49.29% of the vote. She is a supporter of QAnon.[176]

Ibrahim Taher was also on the general election ballot, representing the Pacific Green Party[177] and the Oregon Progressive Party. Gary Dye represented the Libertarian Party.[175]

Rhode Island

Rhode Island election

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2026 →
  Jack Reed, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg Waters4Senate.jpg
Nominee Jack Reed Allen Waters
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 328,574 164,855
Percentage 66.48% 33.35%

U.S. senator before election

Jack Reed
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Jack Reed
Democratic

Democrat Jack Reed won a fifth term in office, defeating Republican Allen Waters by more than 33 percentage points.

Both Reed and Waters ran unopposed for their respective nominations.

South Carolina

South Carolina election

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2026 →
  Lindsey Graham, official photo, 113th Congress (cropped).jpg Jaime Harrison (2017).jpg
Nominee Lindsey Graham Jaime Harrison
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,369,137 1,110,828
Percentage 54.44% 44.17%

U.S. senator before election

Lindsey Graham
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Lindsey Graham
Republican

Three-term Republican Lindsey Graham won a fourth term in office, defeating Democrat Jaime Harrison by over ten percentage points in a highly publicized race.

Graham defeated three opponents in the June 9 Republican primary.[178]

After his primary opponents dropped out, former South Carolina Democratic Party chairman Jaime Harrison was unopposed for the Democratic nomination.

Bill Bledsoe won the Constitution Party nomination. On October 1, 2020, Bledsoe dropped out of the race and endorsed Graham, but remained on the ballot as required by state law.[179]

Despite the significant Republican lean of the state as a whole, polls indicated that the Senate election was competitive, with summer polling ranging from a tie to a modest advantage for Graham.[180][181] Graham's popularity had declined as a result of his close embrace of Trump, reversing his outspoken criticism of Trump in the 2016 campaign.[182][183]

Graham's victory was by a much larger margin than expected,[184] as part of a broader pattern of Republicans overperforming polls in 2020.

South Dakota

South Dakota election

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2026 →
  Mike Rounds official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg
Nominee Mike Rounds Dan Ahlers
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 276,232 143,987
Percentage 65.74% 34.26%

U.S. senator before election

Mike Rounds
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Mike Rounds
Republican

Republican Mike Rounds, former governor of South Dakota, won a second term in office, defeating Democrat Dan Ahlers.

Rounds faced a primary challenge from state representative Scyller Borglum.[185]

Ahlers, a South Dakota state representative, ran unopposed in the Democratic primary.[186]

One independent candidate, Clayton Walker, filed but failed to qualify for the ballot.[187]

Tennessee

Tennessee election

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2026 →
  Ambassador Hagerty (cropped).jpg Marquita Bradshaw at Morristown (cropped).jpg
Nominee Bill Hagerty Marquita Bradshaw
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 1,840,926 1,040,691
Percentage 62.20% 35.16%

U.S. senator before election

Lamar Alexander
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Bill Hagerty
Republican

Three-term Republican Lamar Alexander was reelected in 2014. He announced in December 2018 that he would not seek a fourth term.[188]

Assisted by an endorsement from Trump,[189] former ambassador to Japan Bill Hagerty won the Republican nomination[190] and the seat.

Hagerty defeated orthopedic surgeon Manny Sethi[191] and 13 others in the Republican primary.

Environmental activist Marquita Bradshaw of Memphis defeated James Mackler, an Iraq War veteran and Nashville attorney,[192] in the Democratic primary, a major upset.

Nine Independent candidates also appeared on the general election ballot.

Hagerty easily defeated Bradshaw.

Texas

Texas election

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2026 →
  John Cornyn (cropped).jpg MJHegar (cropped).jpg
Nominee John Cornyn MJ Hegar
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 5,962,983 4,888,764
Percentage 53.51% 43.87%

U.S. senator before election

John Cornyn
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

John Cornyn
Republican

Republican John Cornyn won a fourth[193] term in office, defeating Democrat MJ Hegar by more than ten percentage points.

Cornyn defeated four other candidates in the Republican primary, with 76.04% of the vote.

Hegar, an Air Force combat veteran and the 2018 Democratic nominee for Texas's 31st congressional district,[194] defeated runner-up state senator Royce West and 11 other candidates in the Democratic primary. Hegar and West advanced to a primary runoff election on July 14 to decide the nomination, and Hegar prevailed.

The Green and Libertarian Parties also appeared on the general election ballot. Candidates from the Human Rights Party and the People over Politics Party and three independents failed to qualify.

Statewide races in Texas have been growing more competitive in recent years, and polling in August/September showed Cornyn with a lead of 4–10 points over Hegar, with a significant fraction of the electorate still undecided.[195][196] Cornyn's victory was at the higher end of the polling spectrum.

Virginia

Virginia election

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2026 →
  Mark Warner 113th Congress photo (cropped).jpg Daniel Gade (cropped).jpg
Nominee Mark Warner Daniel Gade
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 2,466,500 1,934,199
Percentage 55.99% 43.91%

U.S. senator before election

Mark Warner
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Mark Warner
Democratic

Democrat Mark Warner won a third term in office, defeating Republican Daniel Gade.

Warner ran unopposed in the Democratic primary.[197]

Gade, a professor and U.S. Army veteran,[198] defeated teacher Alissa Baldwin[199] and U.S. Army veteran and intelligence officer Thomas Speciale[200] in the Republican primary.

West Virginia

West Virginia election

← 2014
2026 →
  Shelley Moore Capito official Senate photo (cropped 2).jpg
Nominee Shelley Moore Capito Paula Jean Swearengin
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 547,454 210,309
Percentage 70.28% 27.00%

U.S. senator before election

Shelley Moore Capito
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Shelley Moore Capito
Republican

Republican Shelley Moore Capito was reelected to a second term in a landslide, defeating Democrat Paula Jean Swearingen by 43 points.

Capito was unsuccessfully challenged in the Republican primary by farmer Larry Butcher and Allen Whitt, president of the West Virginia Family Policy Council.[201]

Swearingen, an environmental activist and unsuccessful candidate for Senate in 2018,[202] won the Democratic primary, defeating former mayor of South Charleston Richie Robb and former state senator Richard Ojeda, who previously ran for Congress and, briefly, president in 2020.

Libertarian candidate David Moran also appeared on the general election ballot.

Wyoming

Wyoming election

← 2014
2026 →
  CynthiaLummis.jpg
Merav Ben-David.jpg
Nominee Cynthia Lummis Merav Ben-David
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 198,100 72,766
Percentage 72.85% 26.76%

U.S. senator before election

Mike Enzi
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Cynthia Lummis
Republican

Four-term Republican Mike Enzi announced in May 2019 that he would retire. Republican nominee Cynthia Lummis defeated Democratic nominee Merav Ben-David by more than 46 percentage points.

Lummis won the Republican nomination in a field of nine candidates.[203]

Ben-David, the chair of the Department of Zoology and Physiology at the University of Wyoming, defeated community activists Yana Ludwig and James Debrine, think-tank executive Nathan Wendt, and perennial candidates Rex Wilde and Kenneth R. Casner for the Democratic nomination.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Because the Vice President of the United States has the power to break ties in the Senate, a Senate majority requires either 51 seats without control of the vice presidency or 50 seats with control of the vice presidency.
  2. ^ a b c d As the two independents senators (Angus King and Bernie Sanders) have caucused with the Democratic Party since joining the Senate, the Democratic caucus consists of 50 seats, which will be a working majority once the presidency of Joe Biden begins, with vice president Kamala Harris casting tie-breaking votes.
  3. ^ a b Results lack the data of the regular and special elections in Georgia.
  4. ^ The two independent senators (Angus King and Bernie Sanders) have caucused with the Democratic Party since joining the Senate.
  5. ^ The last elections for this group of senators were in 2014, except for those elected in a special election or who were appointed after the resignation or passing of a sitting senator, as noted.
  6. ^ FiveThirtyEight has three separate models for their House and Senate ratings: Lite (polling data only), Classic (polls, fundraising, and past voting patterns), and Deluxe (Classic alongside experts' ratings). This table uses the Deluxe model.
  7. ^ Category ranges:
    • Tossup: <60% both candidates
    • Lean: ≥60%
    • Likely: ≥75%
    • Solid: ≥95%
  8. ^ Republican Jeff Sessions ran uncontested in 2014 and won with 97.3% of the vote but resigned on February 8, 2017, to become United States Attorney General.
  9. ^ Republican John McCain won in 2016 with 53.7% of the vote but died on August 25, 2018.
  10. ^ a b This race was decided in a runoff on January 5, 2021, after no candidate reached 50% of the vote on November 3.
  11. ^ Republican Johnny Isakson won with 54.8% of the vote in 2016 but resigned on December 31, 2019, due to declining health.
  12. ^ Democrat Al Franken won with 53.2% of the vote in 2014 but resigned on January 2, 2018.
  13. ^ Republican Thad Cochran won with 59.9% of the vote in 2014 but resigned on April 1, 2018, due to declining health.
  14. ^ Democratic total includes two tndependents who caucus with the Democrats.
  15. ^ a b c d The predictor puts the Vice President for the Democrats, giving them control of the Senate in their ratings with only 50 seats.
  16. ^ If no filing is required prior to the primary, the primary's date is listed.
  17. ^ If no filing is required prior to the general election, the election's date is listed.
  18. ^ The following morning.
  19. ^ If no candidate wins a majority of the vote in the general election on November 3, 2020, the top two candidates will go to run-off on January 5, 2021.
  20. ^ If no candidate wins a majority of the vote in the "jungle primary" on November 3, 2020, the top two candidates will go to run-off.
  21. ^ Eligible up to August 4, 2020, only if no non-write-in candidates file for a primary.
  22. ^ Eligible up to March 10, 2020, only if a candidate whose name is still on the ballot has died, resigned or withdrawn from the race.
  23. ^ Eligible up to November 3, 2020, only if a candidate whose name is still on the ballot ha died, resigned or withdrawn from the race.
  24. ^ Initial declaration of intent's deadline for unaffiliated candidates is December 9, 2019.
  25. ^ Write-in candidates must be registered members of a party by this date to be nominated in its primary but do not need to file a declaration of candidacy beforehand.
  26. ^ Georgia was the "tipping-point state".
  27. ^ Gross is running as an independent with the nomination of the Democratic Party.
  28. ^ a b Maine uses ranked-choice voting; results shown are first-choice votes.

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Further reading